Published Research Papers
Doping in Bodybuilders: A qualitative investigation of facilitative psychosocial processes (Boardley & Grix, 2014)
This paper describes a case study investigation into the psychosocial processes that support performance enhancing drug (PED) use in bodybuilders, based upon Bandura’s (1991) social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. Results showed that there is considerable evidence that moral disengagement does exist in bodybuilders who use PED, with six of the eight mechanisms emerging.
Nutritional, Medicinal and Performance Enhancing Supplementation in Dance (Boardley, Allen, Simmons, & Laws, 2015)
This paper describes an investigation into the reported use of – and potential gender/professional status differences in – nutritional, medicinal and performance enhancing substances used in dancers, as well as the importance dancers place on potential sources of information regarding which supplements to take, when to take them and in what quantity.
Moral disengagement and Associated Processes in Performance-Enhancing Drug Use: A national qualitative investigation (Boardley, Grix, & Dewar, 2014)
This paper describes a national investigation into the psychosocial processes that support performance enhancing drug (PED) use in bodybuilders, based upon Bandura’s (1991) social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. Results again demonstrated the use of six mechanisms of moral disengagement, and also identified environmental factors that support PED-using athletes’ application of these mechanisms.
Doping in Team and Individual Sports: A qualitative investigation of moral disengagement and associated processes (Boardley, Grix, & Harkin, 2014)
This paper describes a qualitative investigation into the psychosocial processes that support performance enhancing drug use in team and individual sports (i.e., American football, athletics, basketball, boxing, mixed martial arts, rugby union, swimming and wrestling). Results again demonstrated the use of the same six mechanisms of moral disengagement identified in previous research, as well as identifying how team- and individual-sport athletes’ use of moral disengagement accords with and diverges from that of PED-using bodybuilders.
A National Investigation of Psychosocial Factors Facilitating Doping in Body Builders Project Summary
This project was the first to conduct an in-depth, large-scale, qualitative investigation into the psychosocial factors that facilitate doping, specifically using Bandura’s (1991) social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. Although previous research had established a consistent positive link between moral disengagement and intention to dope and reported doping behaviour (Lucidi et al., 2004, 2008; Zelli et al., 2010), there was little knowledge prior to this project regarding how doping athletes actually morally disengage. To address this dearth in knowledge, this project involved conducting semi-structured interviews with 64 gym users who admitted doping from across the nine government regions of England. As well as achieving a detailed understanding of the way in which strength athletes morally disengagement when discussing doping, the project also provided an insight into more general features of the doping socialization process that transfer to other sport and exercise disciplines. The findings of this research were reported in a paper published in Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health that can be found here: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2159676X.2013.766809
Designing and Validating Measures of Doping Moral Disengagement and Self-Regulatory Efficacy, and Assessing a Model of Doping Behaviour
This research had two primary aims. First, it aimed to test a hypothetical model of doping behaviour based on Bandura’s (1991) social cognitive theory of moral thought and action across athletes from four sport and exercise populations: team sport; individual sport; hardcore bodybuilders; and corporate gym exercisers. Second, to facilitate the achievement of the first aim, it also sought to develop valid and reliable instruments to assess doping moral disengagement (MD) and doping self-regulatory efficacy (SRE). Following a rigour process, the doping moral disengagement scale (DMDS), doping moral disengagement scale – short (DMDS-S) and doping self-regulatory efficacy (DSRES) were successfully developed and validated across the four sport and exercise contexts. Further, data collected using these scales – as well as other previously validated scales – supported a model of doping behaviour in which empathy and doping SRE negatively predicted doping behaviour via doping MD and anticipated guilt. The full report from this research can be found here: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/social-science/designing-and-validating-measures-of-doping-moral-disengagement-and-self
Sport Coaches’ Doping Confrontation Efficacy and Athletes’ Susceptibility to Intentional and Inadvertent Doping
As central figures in athletes’ support network, coaches represent a potential influence of athletes’ doping moral disengagement, doping self-regulatory efficacy, and susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping. In addition to guiding athletes’ technical, psychological and/or physical development, a key aspect of coaching is directing the appropriate development of athletes’ character (see Feltz et al., 1999). An aspect of coaching relevant to character is their doping confrontation efficacy (DCE), which represents the extent to which coaches believe in their abilities to effectively confront athletes regarding doping, and offer appropriate solutions. This research project was designed to achieve a number of aims relevant to DCE, including: (a) develop understanding on key antecedents and outcomes of DCE in technical and S&C coaches in Olympic sports; (b) develop understanding on doping-relevant coaching behaviours that inform athletes’ perceptions of their technical and S&C coaches’ DCE and athlete-level outcomes of such perceptions in Olympic sports; (c) test a hypothetical process model of athletes’ susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping in which athletes’ perceptions of their coach’s DCE are proposed to predict athletes’ susceptibility to intentional and inadvertent doping through changes in athletes’ doping SRE and doping MD; and (d) determine estimates for prevalence of intentional doping in Olympic sports across the UK, Australia, and the USA. Data collection for this project is ongoing and due to report earlier 2018.